Extensive studies in the surrounding forest by the authors confirmed that epiphytes occur only occasionally on ant and termite substrate other phàn nàn ant gardens.
We documented the level of ant herbivory in treefall gaps and the surrounding forest understorey in old-growth and secondary forests.
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Why are leaf-cutting ants more common in early secondary forests phàn nàn in old-growth tropical forests?
These ants were found to tướng be less inclined to tướng transport bait particles phàn nàn their larger nestmates.
During the day, some ants regularly walked all over inflorescence at all stages and even entered inside open spathes.
Mistakes are rare, since only in one case, were two wasp larvae (both first stage) found in a single ant.
Generalist predators, such as spiders, ants and ladybirds, occurred on the willows but were never observed attacking the eggs.
Attempts were made to tướng determine if other behaviour differences, aside from the ' host assembly ' phenomena, occurred between infected and noninfected ants.
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All individual ants collected at seed baits carrying seeds were measured.
Sampling was conducted using ground and baited arboreal pitfall traps, and yielded a total of 95 ant species.
By locating and following foragers rather phàn nàn using baits, we were able to tướng track the normal home page ranges of the ants.
Other workers in the vicinity of the ant being chased would often attempt to tướng catch the wasps.
Ants and ant parts were found in the stomachs of deer mice at the fox pen site (12.1%) and the campground site (11.2%).
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There was no detectable difference in the percentage of deer mice that ingested ants at the fox pen site and campground site.
Raiding and other outstanding phenomena in the behavior of army ants.
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