class action là gì

From Wikipedia, the miễn phí encyclopedia

A class action waiver is a provision found in some contracts which prohibits a buổi tiệc nhỏ from filing a class action legal proceeding against the other buổi tiệc nhỏ, or both parties waiving the right to lớn tệp tin class actions against each other. Though used internationally, class action waivers, just lượt thích class action lawsuits, are predominantly an American phenomenon and most frequently both found and upheld in the United States and agreements with American citizens.[1]

Bạn đang xem: class action là gì

Class action waivers may be found on a standalone basis, though they are more commonly found as part of an arbitration clause, and when paired with such clauses, frequently include jury trial waivers.[2] All three clauses are the subject to lớn controversy and wide legal debate, with supporters claiming the tools are strong risk management tools and the expense that class action litigation presents both in regard to lớn time and money, though advocacy groups argue that these clauses reduce the rights of consumers and employees and prevent companies from being held accountable for grievances such as wage and hour violations.[3][4] Class action waivers legality across countries and administrative decisions range in legality between jurisdictions, with some countries lượt thích France and administrative divisions lượt thích Ontario in Canada banning such clauses, while others, most prominently the United States via its Supreme Court ruling in AT&T Mobility LLC v. Concepcion', have rules that such clauses are enforceable.

Contractual language[edit]

Most class action waiver clauses include this wording or a variation of it:

You and we agree that any dispute filed against each other must be on an individual basis and not as a class or collective action.[5]

Legal status in the United States[edit]

Federal level[edit]

The Supreme Court of the United States has found on multiple occasions that class action waivers are legal, though in all ruled circumstances on the issue, the Supreme Court has only ruled on class action waivers attached to lớn arbitration agreements. In AT&T Mobility LLC v. Concepcion, the high court ruled that class action waivers are legal under the Federal Arbitration Act as they significantly impact what the court saw as Congress's pro-arbitration stance. The court reiterated its stance in Epic Systems Corp. v. Lewis. In Epic, Justice Neil Gorsuch authored a majority opinion which outlined that the US Congress, upon legislating the National Labor Relations Act of 1935, likely did not wish "to confer a right to lớn class or collective actions in [Section 7 of the NLRA], since those procedures were hardly known when the NLRA was adopted in 1935". Justice Clarence Thomas concurred in a separate opinion, writing that the illegality of the class action waiver is a public policy defense, referring to lớn McMullen v. Hoffman.[6]

Class action waivers in any jurisdiction, however, are not enforceable in cases of sexual assault or sexual harassment; the 117th Congress passed and President Joe Biden signed the Ending Forced Arbitration of Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment Act in 2022 which additionally prohibited the enforcement of class action waivers.[7] As of 2023, the bipartisan law has been used by employees of companies, most notably Rivian, to lớn sidestep class action waivers.[8] Prior to lớn Epic and AT&T, Thành Phố New York and California have attempted to lớn ban class action waivers, and in the case of California, use such laws to lớn additionally invalidate arbitration agreements or allow judges to lớn refuse to lớn enforce class action waivers in certain circumstances. National lawmakers have also pushed to lớn pass the proposed Forced Arbitration Injustice Repeal Act, which would ban the enforcement of both arbitration clauses and class action waivers in many cases today seen by some as unfair or anti-consumer.[9][10][11][12]

Naked class waivers[edit]

A "naked" class action waiver is a version of the waiver where the contract in which the waiver is found is not attached to lớn an arbitration agreement. Class action waivers are only protected from state legislatures' actions through the Federal Arbitration Act, if they are bundled with an agreement to lớn send disputes to lớn arbitration. The Supreme Court has yet to lớn rule on whether naked class waivers are permissible.

Some jurisdictions have laws or legal precedent which are friendly to lớn naked class action waivers. In March 2006, the state of Utah passed a law which expressly permitted class action waivers in contracts, seen by opponents of Utah's law as retaliation against California's courts, which prior to lớn the SCOTUS ruling on class action waivers, had prohibited class action waivers.[13] The Fifth Circuit also ruled that within its circuit, class action waivers not attached to lớn an arbitration agreement are legal in a 2017 case between the NLRB and D. R. Horton, Inc.[14]

Xem thêm: day out là gì

Naked class action waivers, though, are subject to lớn state laws, and as demonstrated in 2023 by rulings made by courts in New Jersey and Rhode Island, they may be overturned and declared unconscionable by state courts.[15][16][17]

As of April 2024, New Jersey's state Supreme Court is due to lớn rule on the enforceability of naked class action waivers.[18]

Legal status in other countries[edit]

Many countries have not tested a class action waiver in courts, though the international law firm CMS predicts that these clauses are unconscionable or unenforceable in Germany, Italy, Russia, and in England and Wales.[19][20][21][22]

Australia[edit]

Class action waivers remained untested in nước Australia until December 2021, where the Federal Court of nước Australia found it was an unfair contract term. In Karpik, the court found that Australian Consumer Law in section 23 (which already bans standard size contracts) prohibits class action waivers.[1][23] On appeal, the Full Court of the Federal Court of nước Australia reversed, only to lớn be later unanimously overturned by the High Court of nước Australia, in the process also striking down Carnival's diễn đàn selection clause which would have otherwise required Karpik to lớn tệp tin legal action in the United States.[24][25][26]

Canada[edit]

National level[edit]

Class action waivers lack a uniform policy across Canada, as the Supreme Court of Canada has found that provincial legislation governs disputes. Nationally, though, in Seidel v. TELUS Communications, the court found that because a class action waiver was attached to lớn an invalid arbitration agreement, the class action waiver was void.

Xem thêm: calculation là gì

Provincial level[edit]

On the provincial level, Ontario, per the Consumer Protection Act of 2002, has banned class action waivers; similar laws have been passed in the provinces of Quebec and Saskatchewan.[27] Courts in British Columbia also previously found that class action waivers were unenforceable and unconscionable in Pearce v. 4 Pillars Consulting Group due to lớn the contract in question being a standard size contract written by 4 Pillars and giving little bargaining power to lớn Pearce.[28] British Columbian courts, however, have overridden this ruling in 2023 litigation against Pokémon Go and Harry Potter: Wizards Unite developer Niantic, where a trial court and a court of appeals ruled in 2023 that such clauses were legal and enforceable, pointing specifically to lớn other provinces which had banned them and how British Columbia had no such ban; the court further ruled that legislatures as opposed to lớn courts are to lớn create exemptions or prohibitions on class action waivers.[27]

France[edit]

Under Article L. 623-32 of the French Consumer Code, as well as Article L. 1143-21 of the French Public Health Code, France considers class action waivers "abusive" and illegal within the country.[29][30]

India[edit]

Class action waivers have not been tested in Indian courts, though Order 1 Rule 8 of the Code of Civil Procedure allows for consumers, with court permission, to lớn initiate class action lawsuits, which the Indian law firm Shardul Amarchand Mangaldas & Co notes can be problematic for the enforceability of class action waivers.[31]

See also[edit]

  • Arbitration clause
  • Forced Arbitration Injustice Repeal Act

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Dreyer, Frances; Briggs, Nicholas; Locket, Scott (September 2021). "Contracting out of class actions? Federal Court says no in an Australian first". Johnson Winter Slattery. Retrieved 2023-12-25.
  2. ^ "The use and enforceability of class action waivers in arbitration agreements in the United States". Practical Law. Retrieved 2022-08-24.
  3. ^ "Are Arbitration Agreements Necessary for Class-Action Waivers To Be Enforceable?". The Florida Bar. Retrieved 2022-08-24.
  4. ^ "Preparing for the COVID-19 class action: Is there an unexpected consequence lurking in your arbitration agreement's poison pill provision? | Insights". DLA Piper. Retrieved 2022-08-24.
  5. ^ "Class kích hoạt Waiver Sample Clauses: 924 Samples". Law Insider. Retrieved 2022-08-25.
  6. ^ "Epic Systems Corp. v. Lewis, 584 U.S. ___ (2018)". Justia Law. Retrieved 2022-08-24.
  7. ^ Bustos, Cheri (2022-03-03). "Text - H.R.4445 - 117th Congress (2021-2022): Ending Forced Arbitration of Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment Act of 2021". United States Congress. Retrieved 2022-08-25.
  8. ^ "Rivian Employee Avoids Arbitration, Class Waiver Under 2022 Law". news.bloomberglaw.com. Retrieved 2023-09-20.
  9. ^ Goldstein, Mark S.; Schmitt Minniti, Cindy (2017-07-31). "New York Court Rules that Class-Action Waivers Are Unenforceable". SHRM. Retrieved 2022-08-27.
  10. ^ Skok, Gavin W. (2020-07-14). "California Strikes Again: Do Arbitration and Class kích hoạt Waiver Clauses Protect Your Clients Against a Class kích hoạt CCPA Claim?". CPO Magazine. Retrieved 2022-08-27.
  11. ^ "Class kích hoạt Waivers Might Not be Enforceable When the Federal Arbitration Act Does Not Apply". Primerus. Retrieved 2022-08-27.
  12. ^ "The FAIR Act: A New Bill Banning Mandatory Arbitration Agreements". JD Supra. Retrieved 2022-12-13.
  13. ^ "Utah Law Permits Class kích hoạt Waivers". Law.com. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  14. ^ Huffstetler, Erin Kilgore, Scott (2017-08-09). "Class kích hoạt Waivers Are Enforceable Even Without an Arbitration Agreement, Says the Fifth Circuit". Louisiana Law Blog. Retrieved 2024-04-04.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  15. ^ "District of Rhode Island invalidates "naked" class action waiver on public policy grounds". ktslaw.com. 2016-07-29. Retrieved 2023-12-15.
  16. ^ Levin, Mark J. (2023-10-26). "Rhode Island federal court nixes stand-alone class action waiver". Consumer Finance Monitor. Retrieved 2023-12-12.
  17. ^ "NJ Appellate Division: Class kích hoạt Waiver Unenforceable Absent Mandatory Arbitration Agreement". New Jersey Law Journal. Retrieved 2023-07-19.
  18. ^ Simonsen, Kaixin Fan, Ashley (2024-01-30). "NJ Supreme Court to lớn Rule on Whether Class kích hoạt Waiver is Enforceable Absent an Arbitration Clause". Inside Class Actions. Retrieved 2024-04-04.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  19. ^ "Class actions in Germany – law and rules". CMS Expert Guide. Retrieved 2022-08-25.
  20. ^ "Class actions in Italy – law and rules". CMS Expert Guide. Retrieved 2022-08-27.
  21. ^ "Class actions in Russia – law and rules". CMS Expert Guide. Retrieved 2022-08-25.
  22. ^ "Class actions in England and Wales – law and rules". CMS Expert Guide. Retrieved 2022-08-25.
  23. ^ "Australian Competition Law | ACL | s 23". Australian Competition Law. Retrieved 2022-08-27.
  24. ^ "High Court of nước Australia finds Ruby Princess class action waiver clauses unfair". Corrs Chambers Westgarth. Retrieved 2024-03-22.
  25. ^ "Carnival plc v Karpik (The Ruby Princess) [2022] FCAFC 149". Federal Court of Australia. Retrieved 2023-12-27.
  26. ^ "Carnival plc v Karpik (The Ruby Princess) [2023] HCA 39". High Court of Australia. Retrieved 2023-12-27.
  27. ^ a b "Publishers, kiểm tra those T&C's: BC Court of Appeal upholds arbitration and class action waivers in Clip game contracts". DLA Piper. Retrieved 2023-12-12.
  28. ^ Armstrong, Stephen; Bjorkquist, Sonia (September 7, 2021). "Riding the wave: recent developments with class action waivers". Osler. Retrieved June 24, 2022.
  29. ^ "Class/collective actions in France: overview". Practical Law. Retrieved 2022-06-24.
  30. ^ Pouzilhac, Aramis Law Firm-Cédric de; Carrega, Marion (2022-02-25). "In brief: arbitration agreements in France". Lexology. Retrieved 2022-06-24.
  31. ^ "Enforceability Of Provisions In Contracts Restricting The Right To File Class kích hoạt Suits In India* - Contracts and Commercial Law - India". www.mondaq.com. Retrieved 2022-08-27.